Object Acquisition and Selection in Human Computer Interaction Systems: A Review

  • Hari Singh DAV Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jalandhar (India)
  • Jaswinder Singh Beant College of Engineering and Technology, Gurdaspur (India)
Keywords: HCI Systems, object acquisition, object selection, mouse analogous operations, differently abled users


Object acquisition and selection are two important functions performed in most of the human computer interaction (HCI) systems. Various techniques are devised by the researchers to perform these operations and the selection of a combination of object acquisition and selection techniques for a particular HCI system has become a research issue, especially, when the user of these systems are differently abled persons. This paper presents a review on object acquisition and selection techniques used in HCI systems. It starts with the introduction to HCI systems, gives an overview on object acquisition & selection techniques, feedback modes, performing mouse analogous actions using eye blinks, the applications of HCI systems, and finally discusses challenges and issues related to these techniques.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Hari Singh, DAV Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jalandhar (India)
Assistant Professor (ECE)DAVIET Jalandhar (India)
Jaswinder Singh, Beant College of Engineering and Technology, Gurdaspur (India)
Associate Professor (ECE)BCET, Gurdaspur (India)


Kumar M, Paepcke A, Winograd T (2007) EyePoint: Practical Pointing and Selection Using Gaze and Keyboard. In: CHI’07 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. pp 421–430

Hild J, Gill D, Beyerer J (2014) Comparing Mouse and MAGIC Pointing for Moving Target Acquisition. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications. pp 131–134

Matos A, Adão T, Magalhães L, Peres E (2016) A myographic-based HCI solution proposal for upper limb amputees. Procedia Computer Science 100:2–13. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2016.09.117

Betke M, Gips J, Fleming P (2002) The Camera Mouse: Visual tracking of body features to provide computer access for people with severe disabilities. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 10:1–10. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2002.1021581

Yang S, Lin C, Lin S, Lee C (2013) Design of Virtual Keyboard using Blink Control Method for the Severely Disabled. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 111:410–418. doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.04.012

Takahashi K, Nakauke T, Hashimoto M (2007) Design and Hands-Free Manipulation Using Simple Bio-Potential Interface System. Journal of System Design and Dynamics 1:691–702. doi: 10.1299/jsdd.1.691

Helmert JR, Pannasch S, Velichkovsky BM (2008) Influences of dwell time and cursor control on the performance in gaze driven typing. Journal of Eye Movement Research 2:1–8.

Porta M, Ravarelli A, Pavia U (2010) Eye-Based User Interfaces : Some Recent Projects. In: 2010 3rd Conference on Human System Interactions. pp 289–294

Chen Y, Newman WS (2004) A Human-Robot Interface Based on Electrooculography. In: Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. pp 243–248

Stopper R, Sieber R, Wiesmann S, Schnabel O (2012) Graphical User Interface: Layout and Design. 1–47. doi: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Liu SS, Rawicz A, Rezaei S, et al (2011) An Eye-Gaze Tracking and Human Computer Interface System for People with ALS and Other Locked-in Diseases. Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering 32:111–116. doi: 10.5405/jmbe.836

Chareonsuk W, Kanhaun S, Khawkam K, Wongsawang D (2016) Face and Eyes Mouse for ALS Patients. In: 2016 Fifth ICT International Student Project Conference (ICT-ISPC). pp 1–4

Istance H, Hyrskykari A, Immonen L, et al (2010) Designing Gaze Gestures for Gaming: An Investigation of Performance. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications. pp 323–330

Huang J, White RW, Dumais S (2011) No Clicks, No Problem: Using Cursor Movements to Understand and Improve Search. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. pp 1225–1234

Majaranta P, Raiha KJ (2002) Twenty Years of Eye Typing: Systems and Design Issues. In: Proceedings of Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA 2002). pp 15–22

Porta M, Turina M, Pavia U (2008) Eye-S: A Full-Screen Input Modality for Pure Eye-based Communication. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications. pp 27–34

Lupu RG, Bozomitu RG, Cehan V (2014) Detection of Gaze Direction by Using Improved Eye – Tracking Technique. In: 37th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology. pp 294–297

Duchowski AT (2018) Gaze-based interaction : A 30 year retrospective. Computers & Graphics 73:59–69. doi: 10.1016/j.cag.2018.04.002

Quain R, Khan MM (2014) Portable Tongue-Supported Human Computer Interaction System Design and Implementation. In: 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC). pp 6302–6307

Mackenzie IS, Ashtiani B (2011) BlinkWrite : Efficient Text Entry using Eye Blinks. Universal Access in the Information Society 10:69–80. doi: 10.1007/s10209-010-0188-6

Huckauf A, Urbina MH (2008) Gazing with pEYEs: Towards a universal input for various applications. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications. pp 51–54

Biswas P, Langdon P (2013) A New Interaction Technique Involving Eye Gaze Tracker and Scanning System. In: Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Eye Tracking. pp 67–70

Usakli AB, Gurkan S, Aloise F, et al (2010) On the Use of Electrooculogram for Efficient Human Computer Interfaces. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience 2010:1–5. doi: 10.1155/2010/135629

Deepika SS, Murugesan G (2015) A Novel Approach for Human Computer Interface on Eye Movements for Disabled People. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies (ICECCT 2015)

Lin M, Li B (2010) A Wireless EOG-based Human Computer Interface. In: 2010 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics. pp 1794–1796

Barea R, Boquete L, Mazo M, López E (2002) System for Assisted Mobility Using Eye Movements Based on Electrooculography. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 10:209–218.

Yamagishi K, Hori J, Miyakawa M (2006) Development of EOG-Based Communication System Controlled by Eight-Directional Eye Movements. In: 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference. pp 2574–2577

Drewes H, Schmidt A (2007) Interacting with the Computer using Gaze Gestures. In: INTERACT’07 Proceedings of the 11th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human Computer Interaction (Part-II). pp 475–488

Lopez-basterretxea A, Mendez-zorrilla A, Zapirain BG (2015) Eye/Head Tracking Technology to Improve HCI with iPad Applications. MDPI Sensors Journal 15:2244–2264. doi: 10.3390/s150202244

Mackenzie IS, Zhang X (2008) Eye Typing Using Word and Letter Prediction and a Fixation Algorithm. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications. pp 55–58

Urbina MH, Weimar B (2010) Alternatives to Single Character Entry and Dwell Time Selection on Eye Typing. In: ETRA ’10 Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Eye-Tracking Research & Applications. pp 315–322

Sibert LE, Jacob RJK (2000) Evaluation of Eye Gaze Interaction. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. pp 281–288

Huckauf A, Urbina MH (2011) Object Selection in Gaze Controlled Systems: What You Don’t Look At Is What You Get. ACM Transactions on Applied Perceptron 8:1–14. doi: 10.1145/1870076.1870081

Zhao XA, Guestrin ED, Sayenko D, et al (2012) Typing with Eye-Gaze and Tooth-Clicks. In: ETRA’12 Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications. pp 341–344

Rantanen V, Verho J, Lekkala J, et al (2012) The Effect of Clicking by Smiling on the Accuracy of Head-Mounted Gaze Tracking. In: ETRA’12 Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications. pp 345–348

Gizatdinova Y, Spakov O, Surakka V (2012) Comparison of Video-Based Pointing and Selection Techniques for Hands-Free Text Entry. In: AVI’12 Proceedings of the International Working Conference Advanced Visual Interfaces. pp 132–139

Heo J, Yoon H, Park KS (2017) A Novel Wearable Forehead EOG Measurement System for Human Computer Interfaces. MDPI Sensors (Basel). doi: 10.3390/s17071485

Grif HS, Farcas CC (2016) Mouse Cursor Control System Based on Hand Gesture. Procedia Technology 22:657–661. doi: 10.1016/j.protcy.2016.01.137

Alomari MH, Abubaker A, Turani A, et al (2014) EEG Mouse: A Machine Learning-Based Brain Computer Interface. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications 5:193–198.

Biswas P, Langdon P (2011) A new input system for disabled users involving eye gaze tracker and scanning interface. Journal of Assistive Technologies 5:58–67. doi: 10.1108/17549451111149269

Ashtiani B, Mackenzie IS (2010) BlinkWrite2 : An Improved Text Entry Method Using Eye Blinks. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications. pp 339–346

Grauman K, Betke M, Lombardi J, et al (2003) Communication via Eye Blinks and Eyebrow Raises: Video-based Human-Computer Interfaces. Universal Access in the Information Society 2:359–373.

Gips J, Olivieri P, Tecce J (1993) Direct Control of the Computer Through Electrodes Placed Around the Eyes. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Applications and Case Studies. pp 630–635

Guillamet TPA, Teixidó MTM, Viso AF, Palacín CRJ (2013) Implementation of a Robust Absolute Virtual Head Mouse Combining Face Detection, Template Matching and Optical Flow Algorithms. Telecommunication Systems 52:1479–1489. doi: 10.1007/s11235-011-9625-y

Vertegaal R (2008) A Fitts’ Law Comparison of Eye Tracking and Manual Input in the Selection of Visual Targets. In: ICMI’08 the 10th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces. pp 241–248

Singh JV, Prasad G (2015) Enhancing an Eye-Tracker based Human-Computer Interface with Multi-modal Accessibility Applied for Text Entry. International Journal of Computer Applications 130:16–22.

Ali N, Khan NY, Imran AS (2007) Controlling Mouse Through Eyes. Proceedings - 3rd International Conference on Emerging Technologies, ICET 2007 179–183. doi: 10.1109/ICET.2007.4516339

Arai K, Mardiyanto R (2011) Eye-based HCI with Full Specification of Mouse and Keyboard using Pupil Knowledge in the Gaze Estimation. In: Proceedings - 2011 8th International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations, ITNG 2011. pp 423–428

Hao Z, Lei Q (2008) Vision-Based Interface: Using Face and Eye Blinking Tracking with Camera. IITA’08 Second International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Applications. doi: 10.1109/IITA.2008.177

Park KS, Lee KT (1996) Eye Controlled Human Computer Interface using the Line-of-Sight and the Intentional Blink. Computers and Industrial Engineering 30:463–473.

Khilari R (2010) Iris Tracking and Blink Detection for Human-Computer Interaction using a Low Resolution Webcam. In: ICVGIP’10 Proceedings of the 7th Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing. pp 456–463

Kraichan C, Pumrin S (2014) Face and Eye Tracking For Controlling Computer Functions. 2014 11th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computers, Telecommunication and Information Technology. doi: 10.1109/ECTICon.2014.6839834

Siriluck W, Kamolphiwong S, Kamolphiwong T (2007) Blink and Click. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Convention on Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology: in Conjunction with 1st Tan Tock Seng Hospital Neurorehabilitation Meeting. pp 43–46

Huckauf A, Urbina MH, Weimar B (2008) On Object Selection in Gaze Controlled Environments. Journal of Eye Movement Research 2:1–7.

Surakka V, Illi M, Isokoski P (2004) Gazing and Frowning as a New Human – Computer Interaction Technique. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception 1:40–56.

Missimer E, Betke M (2010) Blink and Wink Detection for Mouse Pointer Control. In: PETRA’10 Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Pervasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments. Samos, Greece, June 23 -25, pp 1–8

Singh H, Singh J (2018) Real-time eye blink and wink detection for object selection in HCI systems. Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces 12:55–65. doi: 10.1007/s12193-018-0261-7

Chen Z, Shi BE (2017) Improving Gaze - based Selection using Variable Dwell Time. Cornell University Library, Computer Sciecne, Human Computer Interaction 1–11.

Špakov O, Miniotas D (2004) An Algorithm for Adjustable Dwell Time in Eye Typing Systems. Informachines Technologijos IR Valdymas 2:49–52.

Paivi M, MacKenzie IS, Aula A, Raiha KJ (2006) Effects of feedback and dwell time on eye typing speed and accuracy. Universal Access in the Information Society 5:199–208. doi: 10.1007/s10209-006-0034-z

Špakov O, Miniotas D (2004) On-line Adjustment of Dwell Time for Target Selection by Gaze. In: NordiCHI’04. pp 203–206

Zander TO, Gaertner M, Kothe C, Vilimek R (2010) Combining Eye Gaze Input with a Brain-Computer Interface for Touchless Human-Computer Interaction. International Journal of Human Computer Interaction 27:1–25.

Hegde VN, Ullagaddimath RS, S K (2016) Low Cost Eye Based Human Computer Interface System. In: 2016 IEEE Annual India Conference (INDICON). pp 1–6

Iwata M, Ebisawa Y (2008) PupilMouse supported by head pose detection. In: VECIM 2008 IEEE International Conference on Virtual Environments, Human-Computer Interfaces, and Measurement Systems. pp 14–16

Ohno T (2003) Just Blink Your Eyes: A Head-Free Gaze Tracking System. In: ACM CHI 2003: Human Factors in Computing Systems. pp 950–951

Gantyala S, Godad W, Phadnis N (2016) Controlling Mouse Events Using Eye Blink. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering 5:754–756. doi: 10.17148/IJARCCE.2016.53182

Deb S (2013) An augmented human computer interaction system by effective use of eye blink pattern. In: 2nd International Conference on Human Computer Interaction, Education & Information Management System. pp 50–58

Pallejà T, Rubión E, Tresanchez M, Fernández A (2008) Using the Optical Flow to Implement a Relative Virtual Mouse Controlled by Head Movements. Journal of Universal Computer Science 14:3127–3141.

Sarcar S, Panwar P, Chakraborty T (2013) EyeK : An Efficient Dwell-Free Eye Gaze-Based Text Entry System. In: Proceedings of the 11th Asia Pacific Conference of Computer Human Interaction. pp 215–220

Ohno T (1998) Features of Eye Gaze Interface for Selection Tasks. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Pacific Computer Human Interaction. pp 1–6

Prabhakaran V, Pavithra S, Shankar P (2013) A Portable Wireless Human Computer Interface For Physically Challenged People. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering REsearch 4:1970–1973.

Simpson T, Broughton C, Gauthier M, Prochazka A (2008) Tooth-Click Control of a Hands-Free Computer Interface. IEEE Transaction on Bio-medical Engineeirng 1–7. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2008.921161

Ashbrook D, Tejada C, Mehta D, et al (2016) Bitey : An Exploration of Tooth Click Gestures for Hands-Free User Interface Control. In: MobileHCI’16 Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services. pp 158–169

Rozado D (2013) Mouse and keyboard warping to accelerate and reduce the effort of routine HCI input tasks. IEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems 43:487–493.

Kumari P, Singh S, Pasi VK (2016) Cursor Control using Hand Gestures. In: IJCA Proceedings on Recent Trends in Future Prospective in Engineering and Management Technology. pp 25–29

Gore M V, Karwankar AR (2014) Human Computer Interaction using Hand Gesture Recognition. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology 3:604–610.

Dhillon HS, Singla R, Rekhi NS, Jha R (2009) EOG and EMG Based Virtual Keyboard : A Brain-Computer Interface. In: 2nd IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology. pp 14–17

Barreto AB, Scargle SD, Adjouadi M (2000) A practical EMG-based human-computer interface for users with motor disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 37:53–64.

Chin C, Barreto A, Jr MA (2006) Electromyogram-based Cursor Control System for Users with Motor Disabilities. In: ICCHP2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pp 905–912

Forbes T (2013) Mouse HCI Through Combined EMG and IMU. University of Rhode Island

Chin CA, Barreto A, Cremades JG, Adjouadi M (2008) Intergated electromyogram and eye gaze tracking cursor control system for computer users with motor disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 45:161–174. doi: 10.1682/JRRD.2007.03.0050

Argelaguet F, Andujar C (2013) A survey of 3D object selection techniques for virtual environments. Computers and Graphics 37:121–136. doi: 10.1016/j.cag.2012.12.003

Pannasch S, Helmert JR, Malischke S, et al (2008) Eye typing in application : A comparison of two systems with ALS patients. Journal of Eye Movement Research 2:1–8.

Mohammed AA, Anwer SA (2014) Efficient Eye Blink Detection Method for Disabled- Helping Domain. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications 5:202–206.

Banaeeyan R, Bahari M (2014) Review on Issues of Eye Gaze Tracking Systems for Human Computer Interaction. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology 1:237–242.

Zhang X, Ren X, Zha H (2008) Improving Eye Cursor’s Stability for Eye Pointing Tasks. In: SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. pp 525–534

Tuisku O, Paivi M, Isokoski P, Räihä K (2008) Now Dasher! Dash Away!: Longitudinal Study of Fast Text Entry by Eye Gaze. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications. pp 19–26

How to Cite
H. Singh and J. Singh, “Object Acquisition and Selection in Human Computer Interaction Systems: A Review”, IJISAE, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 19-29, Mar. 2019.