Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis of Mixed Critical Applications on Multicore Systems


  • Preeti Godabole Research Scholar, Dept. of Computer Engineering and Information Technology, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, India
  • G. P. Bhole Dept. of Computer Engineering and Information Technology, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, India


Multicore Critical Systems (MCSs), Real–Time Scheduling, Partitioned Scheduling (PS), Global Scheduling (GS), Multiprocessor (MP)


Multicore technology, which has previously been effective in general-purpose computers, is now making inroads into embedded systems. While this improves performance, it also raises the question of how to distribute software activities to the hardware platform's cores, because different allocations have varied added functional features. With the use of multicores, the tasks’ execution time varies in an unpredictable fashion. Many scheduling problems in autonomous cars and avionics systems are mixed critical as they comprise tasks at different critical levels. The primary purpose of this research is worst-case execution time analysis and system makespan evaluation of fault-tolerant mixed critical applications. The study considers priority-based task scheduling algorithms for multicore critical systems. The work has considered distinct parameters of evaluation namely deviation in actual execution time, system makespan, and fault- tolerance. The experimentation on a real-time kernel indicates, that GEDF has minimal deviation of only 4.6% in the execution times as compared to PEDF which is 15.8% when active backups of high critical tasks are added to the system. The global approach outperforms the partitioned approach for the considered parameters in a mixed-critical application.


Download data is not yet available.


H. Youness, A. Omar and M. Moness, "An Optimized Weighted Average Makespan in Fault-Tolerant Heterogeneous MPSoCs," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1933-1946, 1 Aug. 2021, doi: 10.1109/TPDS.2021.3053150.

N. Kim, B. C. Ward, M. Chisholm, C. Y. Fu, J. H. Anderson, and F. D. Smith, “Attacking the one-out-of-m multicore problem by combining hardware management with mixed-criticality provisioning,” IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), pp. 1-12, 2016.

Sai, M. P. ., V. A. . Rao, K. . Vani, and P. . Poul. “Prediction of Housing Price and Forest Cover Using Mosaics With Uncertain Satellite Imagery”. International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, vol. 10, no. 8, Aug. 2022, pp. 36-46, doi:10.17762/ijritcc.v10i8.5666.

Robert I. Davis and Alan Burns. 2011. A survey of hard real-time scheduling for multiprocessor systems. ACM Comput. Surv. 43, 4, Article 35 (October 2011), 44 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/1978802.1978814.

M. J. Traum, J. Fiorentine. (2021). Rapid Evaluation On-Line Assessment of Student Learning Gains for Just-In-Time Course Modification. Journal of Online Engineering Education, 12(1), 06–13. Retrieved from http://onlineengineeringeducation.com/index.php/joee/article/view/45

Sneha Chattopadhyay, M.J. Tresina, Shankar Narayan, “Worst Case Execution Time Analysis of Automotive Software”, Procedia Engineering,Volume 30,2012,Pages 983-988,ISSN 1877-7058,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.01.954. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705812009642)

S. Baruah, “Schedulability Analysis for a General Model of Mixed-Criticality Recurrent Real-Time Tasks,” Proc. - Real-Time Syst. Symp., pp. 25–34, 2017.

Harsh, S. ., Singh , D., & Pathak , S. (2022). Efficient and Cost-effective Drone – NDVI system for Precision Farming. International Journal of New Practices in Management and Engineering, 10(04), 14–19. https://doi.org/10.17762/ijnpme.v10i04.126

E. A. Rambo and R. Ernst, “Replica-Aware Co-Scheduling for Mixed-Criticality Systems,” pp. 1–20, ECRTS, 2017.

Antonin Novak, Premysl Sucha, Zdenek Hanzalek, “Scheduling with Uncertain Processing Times in Mixed-Criticality Systems”, European Journal of Operational Research (2019), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2019.05.038

S. K. Baruah et al., "Mixed-Criticality Scheduling to Minimize Makespan," Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs, vol. 65, pp. 7.1-7.13, Dagstuhl Research Online Publication Server, Dec 2016. The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.7

Gupta, D. J. . (2022). A Study on Various Cloud Computing Technologies, Implementation Process, Categories and Application Use in Organisation. International Journal on Future Revolution in Computer Science &Amp; Communication Engineering, 8(1), 09–12. https://doi.org/10.17762/ijfrcsce.v8i1.2064

Akram, N., Zhang, Y., Ali, S., & Amjad, H. M. (2019, January). Efficient task allocation for real-time partitioned scheduling on multi-core systems. In 2019 16th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST) (pp. 492-499). IEEE.

Kose, O., & Oktay, T. (2022). Hexarotor Yaw Flight Control with SPSA, PID Algorithm and Morphing. International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering, 10(2), 216–221. Retrieved from https://ijisae.org/index.php/IJISAE/article/view/1879

Guoqi Xie, Gang Zeng, Liangjiao Liu, Renfa Li, Keqin Li, “High performance real-time scheduling of multiple mixed-criticality functions in heterogeneous distributed embedded systems”, Journal of Systems Architecture, Volume 70, 2016, Pages 3-14, ISSN 1383-7621, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sysarc.2016.04.008.

Katuk, N., & Chiadighikaobi, I. R. (2022). An Enhanced Block Pre-processing of PRESENT Algorithm for Fingerprint Template Encryption in the Internet of Things Environment. International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security (IJCNIS), 13(3). https://doi.org/10.17762/ijcnis.v13i3.5101

ACET of tasks without backups




How to Cite

P. . Godabole and G. P. . Bhole, “Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis of Mixed Critical Applications on Multicore Systems”, Int J Intell Syst Appl Eng, vol. 10, no. 1s, pp. 343 –, Oct. 2022.