The Influence of Different Factors on the Iraqi Construction Industry Using Organizational Culture: An Intelligent Measurement Model Assessments in AMOS-Based SEM


  • Alhamza Yassin Flaih Maeni, Faridahanim Ahmad


Measurement Model, Stakeholders, Iraqi Construction Industry, Communication, Cost, Technological Factors, Top Management Support, Local Authorities Support, Organizational Culture


The positive impact of the construction industry's efficiency on cost reduction, economic growth, and overall national economies is a widely recognized phenomenon across the globe. The implementation of construction projects is often impeded by various limitations and hazards that impede the progress of project operations, ultimately resulting in a significant adverse impact on the overall performance of the projects. Prior studies have assessed the impact of different factors pertaining to a company or project while disregarding the present study aims to address the research gap by incorporating organizational culture as a moderating variable and assessing the impact of different factors, namely stakeholders, communication, cost, technology, top management support, and local authority support, on the performance of the construction industry in Iraq. The research data was collected through a survey questionnaire with several construction practitioners in Iraq. The AMOS Software is used to analyze the data and develop the measurement model. A survey instrument was utilized to obtain information for the research from a multitude of construction companies in Iraq. The data have been subjected to analysis, and a measurement model has been constructed using AMOS 26 to test the results of the hypotheses. The results reveal that the model fits the nature of the data and the research variables. Investigating the effect of these factors will help the construction industry to prevent or mitigate risks, control expenditures, and achieve competitive advantages. Measuring the Effects of Different Factors on the Iraqi Construction Industry Using Organizational Culture.


Download data is not yet available.


Aapaoja A, Haapasalo H. A framework for stakeholder identification and classification in construction projects. Open Journal of Business and Management. 2014;2014.

Saa'da RJ, Al-Nsour M, Altarawneh AM, Suifan TS, Sweis R, Akhorshaideh AHO, et al. THE IMPACT OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SUPPLY CHAIN AGILITY-EMPIRICAL STUDY IN MEDICAL SECTOR. Academy of Strategic Management Journal. 2022;21(1):1-15.

Lim D, Hohne F, Li X, Huang SL, Gupta V, Bhalerao O, et al. Large scale learning on non-homophilous graphs: New benchmarks and strong simple methods. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems. 2021;34:20887-902.

Niati DR, Siregar ZME, Prayoga Y. The effect of training on work performance and career development: the role of motivation as intervening variable. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal): Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021;4(2):2385-93.

Ikediashi D, Udo G, Ofoegbu M. Post-occupancy evaluation of University of Uyo buildings. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology. 2020;18(6):1711-30.

Dada JT, Adeiza A, Noor AI, Marina A. Investigating the link between economic growth, financial development, urbanization, natural resources, human capital, trade openness and ecological footprint: evidence from Nigeria. Journal of bioeconomics. 2022:1-27.

Adi E, Anwar A, Baig Z, Zeadally S. Machine learning and data analytics for the IoT. Neural computing and applications. 2020;32:16205-33.

Anwar G, Abdullah NN. The impact of Human resource management practice on Organizational performance. International journal of Engineering, Business and Management (IJEBM). 2021;5.

McLaren S, Belling R, Paul M, Ford T, Kramer T, Weaver T, et al. ‘Talking a different language’: an exploration of the influence of organizational cultures and working practices on transition from child to adult mental health services. BMC health services research. 2013;13(1):1-9.

Maeni AYF, Ahmad FB. The Conceptual Framework of Investigating Different Factors Impacting Construction Industry of Iraq: A Moderating Role of Organizational Culture.

Tu Y, Wu W. How does green innovation improve enterprises’ competitive advantage? The role of organizational learning. Sustainable Production and Consumption. 2021;26:504-16.

MSELLA PM, KITULA CF. The influence of firm’s specific characteristics on extent of voluntary disclosures for the manufacturing companies. 2022.

GEORGE J. Impact of organizational culture on total quality management in construction industries. 2015.

Mabelo PB. How to manage project stakeholders: Effective strategies for successful large infrastructure projects: Routledge; 2020.

Kivits R, Sawang S. Dynamism of Stakeholder Engagement: Springer; 2021.

Nash P. Effective product control: controlling for trading desks: John Wiley & Sons; 2017.

Levitas E, McFadyen MA. Managing liquidity in research‐intensive firms: signaling and cash flow effects of patents and alliance activities. Strategic Management Journal. 2009;30(6):659-78.

Ola-awo W, Alayande A, Olarewaju G, Oyewobi L. Critical success factors for effective internal construction stakeholder management in Nigeria. Acta Structilia. 2021;28(1):1-31.

Al Harrasi M, Labib A. Stakeholders Management in Rainfall Enhancement Project of Oman. The Journal of Weather Modification. 2021;53(1).

Awatsu F. Exploring critical success factors for stakeholders’ management in engineering installation projects in Ghana 2021.

Seekings J. The ILO and social protection in the Global South, 1919-2005: Centre for Social Science Research, University of Cape Town Cape Town; 2008.

Imran M, Ismail F, Arshad I, Zeb F, Zahid H. The mediating role of innovation in the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance in Pakistan's banking sector. Journal of Public Affairs. 2022;22:e2717.

Jayasuriya S, Zhang G, Yang RJ. Exploring the impact of stakeholder management strategies on managing issues in PPP projects. International Journal of Construction Management. 2020;20(6):666-78.

Hussein M, Eltoukhy AE, Karam A, Shaban IA, Zayed T. Modelling in off-site construction supply chain management: A review and future directions for sustainable modular integrated construction. Journal of cleaner production. 2021;310:127503.

Alshoubaki We, Harris M. The impact of Syrian refugees on Jordan: A framework for analysis. Journal of International Studies (2071-8330). 2018;11(2).

Van den Berg PT, Wilderom CP. Defining, measuring, and comparing organisational cultures. Applied psychology. 2004;53(4):570-82.

Brugha R, Varvasovszky Z. Stakeholder analysis: a review. Health policy and planning. 2000;15(3):239-46.

Costa E, Pesci C. Social impact measurement: why do stakeholders matter? Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal. 2016;7(1):99-124.


Khalid LS, Rahman IA, Abdulaali HS, Abdulhasan MJ. Structural Equation Model to Evaluate the External Factors of Iraqi Construction Projects Performance Using PESTLE Technique. J Xi’an Univ Architecture Technol. 2020;12(6):671-80.

Joseph J, Gaba V. Organizational structure, information processing, and decision-making: A retrospective and road map for research. Academy of Management Annals. 2020;14(1):267-302.

Liu G, Tsui E, Kianto A. Knowledge-friendly organisational culture and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business Research. 2021;134:738-53.

Al-Qadi MM. Workplace violence in nursing: A concept analysis. Journal of occupational health. 2021;63(1):e12226.

Ika LA, Pinto JK. The “re-meaning” of project success: Updating and recalibrating for a modern project management. International Journal of Project Management. 2022;40(7):835-48.

Pathiranage YL, Jayatilake LV, Abeysekera R. A Literature Review on Organizational Culture towards Corporate Performance. International Journal of Management, Accounting & Economics. 2020;7(9).

Wysocki RK. Effective project management: traditional, agile, extreme: John Wiley & Sons; 2011.

Riege A, Lindsay N. Knowledge management in the public sector: stakeholder partnerships in the public policy development. Journal of knowledge management. 2006;10(3):24-39.

Mitchell RK, Weaver GR, Agle BR, Bailey AD, Carlson J. Stakeholder agency and social welfare: Pluralism and decision making in the multi-objective corporation. Academy of Management review. 2016;41(2):252-75.

Chinyio E, Singh S, Suresh S. 20. A review of stakeholder management in construction. Research Companion to Construction Economics. 2022:422.

Alkarawi SN, Jaber FK. Integration Building Information Modeling and Lean Construction Technologies in the Iraqi Construction Sector: Benefits and Constraints. Journal of Engineering. 2023;29(6):140-58.

Al-Zwainy FMS, Mohammed IA, Raheem SH. Investigation and assessment of the project management methodology in Iraqi construction sector. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2016;11(4):2494-507.

Al Musawi L, Naimi S. The management of construction projects in Iraq and the most important reasons for the delay. Acta Logistica. 2023;10(1):61-70.

Al-Mayahi HT, Ismail S, Wahab MH, Rani WNMWM, Amat RC. Architectural Practices of Project Communication Management in Iraq. Planning Malaysia. 2018;16.

Al-Hashimy HNH, Said I, Ismail R. Evaluating the Impact of Computerized Accounting Information System on the Economic Performance of Construction Companies in Iraq. Informatica. 2022;46(7).

Muhsin IF. The Cost of Technology Transfer in Construction Companies (In Iraq). Journal of Engineering. 2023;29(12):187-200.

Alkubaisi T. The impact of cost control management in the construction industry in Iraq: Altınbaş Üniversitesi/Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü; 2022.

Al Kulabi AK, Atiea HMJ. Time overruns in the construction projects in Iraq: Case study on investigating and analyzing the root causes. Open Engineering. 2022;12(1):702-15.

Ahmed R, Hussain A, Philbin SP. Moderating effect of senior management support on the relationship between schedule delay factors and project performance. Engineering Management Journal. 2022;34(3):374-93.

Ali M, Li Z, Khan S, Shah SJ, Ullah R. Linking humble leadership and project success: the moderating role of top management support with mediation of team-building. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business. 2021;14(3):545-62.

Al Ogaili SMA. The impacts of project management and government support on project's economy: a comparative study of precast concrete factories in Iraq: İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü; 2022.

Al-Ageeli HK, Alzobaee ASJA. Critical success factors in construction projects (Governmental projects as a case study). Journal of Engineering. 2016;22(3):129-47.

Faeq DK, Garanti Z, Sadq ZM. The Effect of Total Quality Management on Organizational Performance: Empirical Evidence from the Construction Sector in Sulaymaniyah City, Kurdistan Region–Iraq. UKH Journal of Social Sciences. 2021;5(1):29-41.

Hassan S. Organizational Effectiveness in both Private and Publish Sectors in Iraqi Kurdistan, the role of Organization Culture and Leadership will be investigated. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT). 2021;12(2):218-38.

Purwanto A. Partial least squares structural squation modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis for social and management research: a literature review. Journal of Industrial Engineering & Management Research. 2021.

Collier J. Applied structural equation modeling using AMOS: Basic to advanced techniques: Routledge; 2020.

Hair J, Joe F, Sarstedt M, Matthews LM, Ringle CM. Identifying and treating unobserved heterogeneity with FIMIX-PLS: part I–method. European business review. 2016;28(1):63-76.

Nusantara T, Rahmatina D, Purnomo H. The Statistical Creative Framework in Descriptive Statistics Activities. International Journal of Instruction. 2021;14(2):591-608.

AL-Fadhali N. An AMOS-SEM approach to evaluating stakeholders' influence on construction project delivery performance. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management. 2022.

Gravetter FJ, Wallnau LB. Introduction to the t statistic. Essentials of statistics for the behavioral sciences. 2014;8(252).

George D, Mallery P. Descriptive statistics. IBM SPSS Statistics 25 Step by Step: Routledge; 2018. p. 126-34.

Lucas RE, Diener E, Suh E. Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1996;71(3):616.

Raykov T, Marcoulides GA. A first course in structural equation modeling: routledge; 2012.

Shi D, Maydeu-Olivares A. The effect of estimation methods on SEM fit indices. Educational and psychological measurement. 2020;80(3):421-45.

Sharma PN, Shmueli G, Sarstedt M, Danks N, Ray S. Prediction‐oriented model selection in partial least squares path modeling. Decision Sciences. 2021;52(3):567-607.

Preacher KJ, Yaremych HE. Model selection in structural equation modeling. Handbook of structural equation modeling. 2023:206-22.

Rodríguez‐González M, Lampis J, Murdock NL, Schweer‐Collins ML, Lyons ER. Couple adjustment and differentiation of self in the United States, Italy, and Spain: A cross‐cultural study. Family Process. 2020;59(4):1552-68.

Igartua J-J, Hayes AF. Mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: Concepts, computations, and some common confusions. The Spanish Journal of Psychology. 2021;24:e49.




How to Cite

Alhamza Yassin Flaih Maeni. (2024). The Influence of Different Factors on the Iraqi Construction Industry Using Organizational Culture: An Intelligent Measurement Model Assessments in AMOS-Based SEM. International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering, 12(21s), 1817–1835. Retrieved from



Research Article