Load Frequency Control of a Two-Area, Multi-Unit AGC Hybrid Power System Under Deregulated Environment using PI-PDF and CPI-PDF Tuner with Differential Evolution Algorithm


  • Sunil Kumar PHD Scholar DCRUST Murthal, Sonipat, Haryana
  • S. K. Gupta Department of Electrical Engineering, DCRUST, Murthal, Sonipat, Haryana


Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR), Cascaded Integral and Derivative Controllers (CPID), Load Frequency Control (LFC), Series Connected Integral and Derivative Controller.


In this article, Load Frequency Control (LFC) via Automatic Generation Control (AGC) is applied in hybrid power systems everywhere in the world. In hybrid power system it is usual to locate several units in an area that is further linked to another area having various kinds of generating units or the same type of generating units. Automatic Generation Control (AGC) for multi-area power systems under a deregulated environment is analyzed and discussed in this study using the different types of fine tuners. In this work for energy management various generating units which are thermal, hydro, nuclear, gas, and diesel power plant have been integrated with the grid. The different fine tuners PDF, PI, PIDF, PI-PDF, CPI-PDF, CPIDF-PD are considered to obtain better results. Initially, a two-area, five-unit system without any physical constraints is considered, and the gains fine tuners are optimized utilizing a Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm with an ITAE criterion. Thereafter, an Automatic voltage controller, also termed an AVR, is applied to further improve the system voltage. The effectiveness of the new controller is examined in a deregulated environment. The simulation result obtained from the series connected PI-PDF and CPI-PDF are found better than other controllers in respect of settling time, rise time, peak value, and peak time. The settling time of frequency using PI-PDF for two areas is 10.39sec and 9.57sec which is the least as compared to other fine tuner. The settling time of tie-line response is 9.62sec. The hybrid system using different tuner are studied using MATLAB Simulink.


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How to Cite

Kumar, S. ., & Gupta, S. K. . (2023). Load Frequency Control of a Two-Area, Multi-Unit AGC Hybrid Power System Under Deregulated Environment using PI-PDF and CPI-PDF Tuner with Differential Evolution Algorithm. International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering, 12(4s), 16–29. Retrieved from https://ijisae.org/index.php/IJISAE/article/view/3748



Research Article